Clove (Eugenia aromatica) and clove oil(eugenol)

background

Clove is widely cultivated in Indonesia, Sri-Lanka, Madagascar, Tanzania, and Brazil. It is used in limited amounts in food products as a fragrant, flavoring agent, and antiseptic.
Clinical trials assessing monotherapy of clove are limited, although the expert panel German Commission E has approved the use of clove as a topical antiseptic and anesthetic. Other uses for clove, such as premature ejaculation, dry socket, and fever reduction, lack reliable human clinical evidence.
Clove is sometimes added to tobacco in cigarettes, and clove cigarettes ("kreteks") typically contain 60% tobacco and 40% ground cloves.
Eugenol, a constituent of clove, has been used for analgesic, local anesthetic, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial effects. It is used in the form of a paste or mixture as dental cement, filler, and restorative material.
Plant oils, including clove, may be used in livestock to inhibit microbial fermentation in waste products. Clove oil may be found in high concentration licorice (glycyrrhizin) products to prevent gel formation in an aqueous solution.

Related Terms

2-methoxy-4-(2-propenyl)-phenol, beta-caryophyllene, Caryophylli atheroleum,Caryophylli flor, caryophyllum, caryophyllus, Caryophyllus aromaticus, cengke (Indonesian), cengkeh (Indonesian), cinnamon nails, clavo (Spanish), clavo de olor (Spanish), clou de girofle (French), clove bud, clove bud oil, clove cigarettes, clove essential oil, clove leaf, clove oil, craveiro da India (Portuguese), cravina de Túnis (Portuguese), cravinho (Portuguese), cravo (Portuguese), cuisoare, dried clove, Eugenia aromatica, Eugenia bud, Eugenia caryophyllata, Eugenia caryophyllus, eugenol, eugenole, flores Caryophylli, Myrtaceae (family), oil of clove, oleum caryophylli, pentogen (clove oil), Syzigium aromaricum, Syzygium aromaticum (L) Merr. & Perry., Tiger Balm™ Red, tropical myrtle.
Do not confuse clove with: Baguacu, black plum, Eugenia cumini, Eugenia edulis, Eugenia jambolana, Eugenia umbelliflora, jamun, java apple, java plum, SCE, Syzygium cordatum, Syzygium cumini, Syzygium samarangense, water apple, or wax apple.
Combination product examples: Dent-Zel-Ite® toothache relief drops, Red Cross Toothache Medication®; Tiger Balm™ Red (5% cassia oil plus 5% clove oil); Shitei-To (STT) (Shitei (SI, Kaki Calyx; calyx of Diospyros kaki L. f.), Shokyo (SK, Zingiberis Rhizoma; rhizome of Zingiber officinale Roscoe) and Choji (CJ, Caryophylli flos; flowerbud of Syzygium aromaticum [L.] Merrill et Perry), Olbas Oil (menthol 4.1% and oil of cajuput 18.5%, clove 0.1%, eucalyptus 35.5%, juniper berry 2.7%, peppermint 35.5%, and wintergreen oil (methyl salicylate) 3.7%), Buddha Nose Immune Booster Spray and Salve (lemon, clove, cinnamon, and ravensara essential oils), DHC-1 (Bacopa monniera, Emblica officinalis, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Mangifera indica, and Syzygium aromaticum).
Dental sealants containing eugenol: Kerr Pulp Canal Sealer, Roth's 801, Eugenol-based IRM (Intermediate Restorative Material), Tifell (formocresol-eugenol), Pulp Canal Sealer, EndoFill.
Cement/temporary cement/periodontal dressings for dental work: ZOE®/SSW, Superbite, Canals, Endomethansone, N2, Endofill, Intrafill, Tubli-Seal, Kerr, periodontal dressings, Wondrpak® and Nobetec®, temporary cement Temp bond, Provy, TempCem, Eugedain, Showa Yakuhin Kakou, Pulp Canal Sealer EWT.

evidence table

These uses have been tested in humans or animals. Safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider.
 
Dental pain (Grade: B)
Clove essential oil is commonly used as a dental pain reliever. Early studies have found that a homemade clove gel may be as effective as benzocaine 20% gel. Clove oil combined with zinc oxide paste may be effective for dry socket (inflammation after tooth extraction).
Anal fissures (Grade: C)
Based on limited human study, 1% clove oil cream may have beneficial effects for the healing of anal fissures. More well-designed trials are needed before a conclusion may be made.
Dental hygiene (Grade: C)
Based on clove oil's reported antibacterial effects, it may be useful for inclusion in methods of dental hygiene, such as toothpastes. One study did not show that clove oil, in combination with other supposed antibacterial agents, decreased the presence of bacteria in orthodontic patients. However, better designed studies are needed to determine the effects of clove oil alone before a conclusion may be made.
Fever reduction (Grade: C)
Animal studies suggest that clove can lower fever, but reliable human studies are lacking.
Headache (acute tension) (Grade: C)
Based on limited study, clove bud oil, in combination with a variety of substances, may decrease headache severity. However, additional studies are needed to determine the effects of clove oil alone before a conclusion may be made.
Mosquito repellent (Grade: C)
In lab and field tests, undiluted clove oil repelled multiple species of mosquitoes for up to two hours. However, undiluted clove oil may also cause skin rash in sensitive people.
Premature ejaculation (Grade: C)
A small amount of human research reports that a combination cream with clove and other herbs may be helpful in the treatment of premature ejaculation. However, well-designed studies of the effectiveness of clove alone are needed before a conclusion can be drawn.