Siberian ginseng

background

Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus, also known as Acanthopanax senticosus) is a small, woody shrub native to southeastern Russia, northern China, Korea, and Japan. Although Eleutherococcus senticosus is not related to true ginseng (Panax ginseng), the name Siberian ginseng became popular because the two plants shared some similar properties.
Use of Siberian ginseng may date back over 2,000 years in China. Traditionally, Siberian ginseng has been used as an adaptogen, a compound that increases one's ability to adapt to environmental factors, including physical and emotional stress. Overall, there is currently little clinical evidence on the use of Siberian ginseng for this purpose or to treat any medical condition in humans.
Siberian ginseng is called ci wu ju in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). In TCM, Siberian ginseng is used to invigorate qi; strengthen the spleen; nourish the kidney; provide energy and vitality; and treat high blood pressure, inflammation, respiratory tract infections, ischemic heart disease, spasms, and hepatitis. In traditional Russian medicine, Siberian ginseng is used to stimulate the immune system. Shigoka, the Siberian ginseng rhizome, is a traditional medicine used as a tonic in northeastern Asia and far eastern Russia. It has also been used in traditional Korean medicine as a tonic and adaptogen to strengthen qi. Siberian ginseng is among the five adaptogens most commonly used by Western herbalists.
Siberian ginseng has been added to yogurt products. Eleutherosides, active components of Siberian ginseng, have withstood pasteurization. Siberian ginseng is also called "eleuthero" in some products.

Related Terms

1',5'-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 2,6-dimethoxy-4-[(1E)-3,3-dimethoxy-1-propenyl]phenyl beta-D-glucopyranoside, 2,6-dimethoxy-4-(3-hydroxy-propen-1-yl) phenyl-4-O-alpha-L-rhamno-pyranosyl-(1->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside, 3-(4-O-beta-D-glucopyranosylferuloyl)quinic acid, 3,4-seco-lupane-20(29)-ene-3,28-dioic acid, 3',5'-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 4',5'-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 5'-O-caffeoylquinic acid and isomers, (7R,8S)-dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol 4,9'-di-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, Acanthopanax senticosus, acanthopanaxoside E (3-O-beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl echinocystic acid 28-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside), acanthosides, ADAPT-232, aglycone, alimoxide, alpha-bisabolol, alpha-longipinene, arabinose, Araliaceae (family), Argoeleuter tablets, benzyl-O-alpha-L-rhamno-pyranosyl (1->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside, beta-sitosterol, caffeic acid, carbohydrate, chlorogenic acid, Circu-ForteTM, Circulat®, ci wu jia (Chinese), ci wu ju (Chinese), ciwujia (Chinese), ciwujianoside B(1), ciwujianoside C(1), ciwujianoside C(2), ciwujianoside C(3), ciwujianoside C(4), ciwujianoside D(1), ciwujianoside D(2), ciwujianosides, ciwujiatone, complex polysaccharides, copteroside B, devil's bush, devil's shrub, dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol monopyranose, (E)-anethole, Eleu-kokk®, eleuterozid B, eleuterozid C, eleuterozid D, eleuthera, eleutheran, eleutheran A, eleutheran B, eleutheran C, eleutheran D, eleutheran E, eleutheran F, eleutheran G, eleuthero, eleuthero ginseng, eleutherococc, Eleutherococci radix, Eleutherococcus, eleutheroside B, eleutheroside B1, eleutheroside E, eleutheroside E(1), eleutheroside E(2), eleutherosides, episyringaresinol 4"-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, erythro-1,2-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,3-propanediol, erythro-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-phenyl)-2-{4-[(E)-3-hydroxy-1-propenyl]-2-methoxy-phenoxy}-1,3-propanediol, essential oil, extractum eleutherococci fluidum, ezoukogi (Japanese), ferulic acid, flavonoids, free phenolic acids, galactose, ginseng, ginsenosides, glucopyranosides, glucose, glucuronic acid, glycans, glycosides, guaia-6,9-dien-4beta-ol, gypsogenin 3-O-beta-D-glucuronopyranoside, Hedera senticosa, hederagenin 3-O-beta-D-glucuronopyranoside 6'-O-methyl ester, hyperin, hyperoside, Hyul-Tong-Ryung, Immuplant tablets, iridoid glycosides, isofraxidin, isofraxidin chiisanoside, isomaltol 3-O-alpha-D-glucopyranoside, Kan Jang®, Kan-Yang, lignans, lycoperodine-l, lyoniresinol, mannose, manyprickle acanthopanax, minerals, monoterpenoids, nicotinamide, oplopanone B, p-coumaric, phenolic acids, p-hydroxybenzoic, phytoestrogen, phytosterols, polyphenols, prickly eleutherococc, protein, protocatechuic acid, rel-5-(1R,5S-dimethyl-3R,4R,8S-trihydroxy-7-oxa-6-oxobicyclo[3,2,1]oct-8-yl)-3-methyl-2Z,4E-pentadienoic acid, rhamnose, rosmarinic acid, Russian root, rutoside, salvadoraside, schisandrin B, senticoside, sesamin, sesquiterpenoids, shigoka, Siberian ginseng wuchaseng extract, silphioside F, spiny eleutherococcus, stigmasterol, sucrose, syringaresinol, diglucoside, syringaresinol-di-O-beta-D-glucoside, syringic acid, syringin, tachioside, Taiga Wurzel, thorny bearer of free berries, thorny pepperbrush, thymidine, thymol, tortoside A, touch me not, triterpene saponins, triterpenoid saponins, untouchable, uronic acid, ussuri, ussurian, vanillic, vitamins, wild pepper, wu jia pi, wuchaseng, wu-jia, wujiaseng, xylose.
Select combination products: ADAPT-232 (containing Rhodiola rosea, Schisandra chinensis, and Siberian ginseng), AdMax® (dried ethanol-water extracts from roots of Leuzea carthamoides, Rhodiola rosea, Eleutherococcus senticosus, and fruits of Schisandra chinensis), Aidi Injection (cantharis, Astragalus membranaceus, Acanthopanax senticosus root, Panax ginseng), Chisan® (extracts of Rhodiola rosea L., Schisandra chinensis Turcz. Baill., and Eleutherococcus senticosus Maxim.), Circulat® (also called Circu-ForteTM) (Siberian ginseng root, Rhaponticum carthamoides root, Panax ginseng root, Panax quinquefolius root, Pfaffia paniculata root, Rhodiola rosea root, Echinacea angustifolia root, Echinacea purpurea root, Ganoderma lucidum, Grifola frondosa, Hydrastis canadensis, Petiveria alliacea, Sutherlandia frutescens, Tabebuia avellanedae bark, Uncaria tomentosa root, Angelica sinensis root, Crataegus oxycantha fruit, Croton lechleri bark resin, Gingko biloba leaf, Hydrocotyle asiatica, Ruscus aculeatus root, Vaccinium myrtillus fruit), HT008-1 (composed of Panax ginseng, Siberian ginseng, Angelica sinensis, and Scutellaria baicalensis), Hyul-Tong-Ryung (Salvia miltiorrhiza, chrysanthemum, Acanthopanax senticosus, Cinnamomi ramulus, Eucommiae cortex, licorice, Puerariae radix, Crataegi fructus, Cassiae semen, safflower, peony root, dong quai), ImmunoGuard® (Andrographis paniculata Nees, Eleutherococcus senticosus Maxim., Schizandra chinensis Baill., and Glycyrrhiza glabra L. extracts), Kan Jang® (Echinacea purpurea, Adhatoda vasica, and Eleutherococcus senticosus), Kan-Yang (Andrographis and Siberian ginseng).

evidence table

These uses have been tested in humans or animals. Safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider.
 
Adaptogen (Grade: C)
Siberian ginseng has traditionally been used as an adaptogen, a compound that increases one's ability to adapt to environmental factors, including physical and emotional stress. Studies have investigated the effect of Siberian ginseng on increasing energy, reducing fatigue, and on enhancing exercise performance. Additional research is needed in this area.
Cancer (Grade: C)
Siberian ginseng root has been suggested as part of a holistic approach to the treatment of prostate cancer. Preliminary evidence suggests that a combination therapy that includes Siberian ginseng may increase survival time in patients with advanced cancer. Additional research is needed in this area.
Cognitive function (Grade: C)
Preliminary evidence suggests that a combination product (containing Siberian ginseng,
Diabetic foot ulcers (Grade: C)
Preliminary evidence suggests that a combination therapy that contains Siberian ginseng had a beneficial effect on diabetic foot ulcers. Additional studies of Siberian ginseng alone are needed.
Exercise performance enhancement (Grade: C)
Siberian ginseng has been traditionally used as an exercise performance enhancement agent. Results of clinical studies have been mixed. Additional research is needed in this area.
Familial Mediterranean Fever (Grade: C)
Preliminary research suggests that a combination product containing Siberian ginseng may reduce symptoms of familial Mediterranean fever. Further studies of Siberian ginseng alone are needed.
Fatigue (Grade: C)
Preliminary research suggests that Siberian ginseng may reduce the severity and duration of fatigue in patients with less severe chronic fatigue syndrome. However, the results of other studies are not in agreement. Additional research is needed in this area.
Genital herpes (Grade: C)
Limited research suggests that Siberian ginseng may reduce the severity, duration, and frequency of outbreaks of genital herpes after three months of use. Further research is required before conclusions can be made.
Immunomodulation (Grade: C)
The effect of Siberian ginseng, alone and in combination with other herbal ingredients, has been investigated, with mixed results. Additional research is needed in this area.
Influenza (Grade: C)
Research suggests that a combination treatment containing Siberian ginseng may contribute to quicker recovery and reduce the risk of postinfluenza complications. Further studies on the effect of Siberian ginseng alone are needed.
Low blood pressure (neurocirculatory) (Grade: C)
Preliminary data suggest that use of Siberian ginseng extract may increase blood pressure in individuals with neurocirculatory low blood pressure. Further evidence is required before conclusions can be made.
Menopause (Grade: C)
Preliminary research on a combination product containing Siberian ginseng suggests a lack of an effect on reducing menopausal symptoms, such as hot flashes. Further studies with Siberian ginseng alone are needed.
Osteoarthritis (Grade: C)
In patients with knee osteoarthritis, a combination product (containing
Osteoporosis (Grade: C)
A combination therapy containing low-dose calcium, vitamin D3,
Pneumonia (Grade: C)
Preliminary research suggests that use of a combination product containing Siberian ginseng may reduce the need for antibiotics in patients with pneumonia. Additional studies on the effect of Siberian ginseng alone are needed.
Quality of life (Grade: C)
A small, preliminary study suggested that Siberian ginseng may not improve quality of life in the elderly. Additional research is needed in this area.
Respiratory tract infections (Grade: C)
Several studies suggest that some combination products that contain Siberian ginseng (including Kan Jang® and another product that also contains
Bipolar disorder (Grade: D)
Preliminary data suggest that Siberian ginseng, when used together with lithium, may be no more beneficial than fluoxetine in treating bipolar disorder in adolescents. Additional research is needed in this area.