Sage (Salvia officinalis, Salvia lavandulaefolia, Salvia lavandulifolia)

background

Sage has been used in Europe for centuries as a spice and a medicine. Salvia officinalis and Salvia lavandulifolia (Salvia lavandulaefolia) are two of the most common types of sage.
Sage is a popular European treatment for inflammation of the mouth and throat, upset stomach (dyspepsia), and excessive sweating, in addition to other uses.
Evidence supporting the use of sage for any condition is limited and all findings remain inconclusive. Further research is necessary before a strong assessment can be made.

Related Terms

1,8-Cineole, 1-O-(2,3,4-trihydroxy-3-methyl)butyl-6-O-feruloyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside, 1-O-caffeoyl-beta-D-apiofuranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside, 1-O-p-hydroxybenzoyl-beta-D-apiofuranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside, 3-carene, 3'-O-beta-D-glucuronide, 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 4-hydroxyacetophenone 4-O-[5-O-(3, 5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxybenzoyl)-beta-D-apiofrunosyl]-(1-->2)-beta-D- glucopyranoside, 4-hydroxyacetophenone 4-O-(6'-O-beta-D-apiofuranosyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside, 5-methoxysalvigenin, 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 6-hydroxyluteolin 7-O-beta-D-glucoside, 6-O-caffeoyl-beta-D-fructofuranosyl-(2-->1)-alpha-D-glucopyranoside, 7-alpha-12-dihydroxy-8,12-abietadiene-11-14-dione (horminone), 7-alpha-acetoxy-12-hydroxy-8,12-abietadiene-11,14-dione (7-O-acetylhorminone), 7-O-beta-D-glucuronide, 7-O-glucuronide-6,8-di-C-beta-D-glucosylapigenin (vicenin-2), 12-hydroxy-8,12-abietadiene-11,14-dione (royleanone), 12-O-methyl carnosol, abietane diterpenes (7-methoxyrosmanol and galdosol), alpha-amyrin, alpha-cedrine, alpha-humulene, alpha-pinene, alpha-terpinene, alpha-terpineol, alpha-thujone, alpha-tocopherol, apigenin, aromadendrine, atuntzensin A, berggarten sage, beta-carotene, beta-caryophyllene, beta-myrcene, beta-pinene, beta-sitosterol, beta-sitosterol-D-glucoside,beta-thujone, beta-trans-ocymene, beta-ursolic acid, betulin, black sage, bornyl acetate, broad-leafed sage, caffeic acid, caffeoyl-coumarin conjugates, campesterol, camphene, camphor, carnosic acid, carnosol, carnosolic acid, caryophyllene, caryophyllene oxide, catechin, chlorogenic acid, chrysoeriol, cirsilineol, cirsiliol, cirsimaritin, cis-p-coumaric acid 4-O-(2'-O-beta-D-apiofuranosyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside, citral, clary sage, columbaridione, common sage, cynaroside, Dalmatian sage, delta-cadinene, diosmetin, diterpene quinones, East Mediterranean sage, Edelsalbei (German), ellagic aid, epirosmanol, essential oil, ethyl beta-D-glucopyranosyl tuberonate, eucalyptol, farnesol, ferulic acid, feuilles de sauge (French), flavones, flavonoids, fumaric acid, gallic acid, gamma-terpinene, garden sage, Gartensalbei (German), genkwanin, geraniol, Greek sage, herba Salviae, hesperetin, hispidulin, (-)-hydroxyjasmonic acid, isocaryophyllene, isoferulic acid, isorosmanol, isothujone, Judean sage, kew gold, kitchen sage, Labiatae (former family name), labiatic acid, Lamiaceae (family), limonene, linalool, linalyl acetate, lupeol, luteolin, luteolin-7-glucoside, luteolin-7-O-beta-D-glucoside, malic acid, manool, maslinic acid, meadow sage, menthol, miltirone, monoterpene glycosides, monoterpene hydrocarbons, nepetin, Newe Ya'ar No. 4, nutmeg sage, oleanolic acid, oleoresin sage, ortho-dihydroquinones, oxygenated monoterpenes, oxygenated sesquiterpenes, oxytriterpenic acids, p-cymene, pentacyclic triterpenes, phenolic diterpenes, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, physcion, phytosterols, polysaccharides, pomolic acid, purpurascens, quinines, red sage, rosmadiol, rosmanol, rosmanol-9-ethyl ether, rosmarinic acid, rouleanone, royleanones, S. hypoleuca, S. reuterana, S. verticillata, S. virgata, sagecoumarin, Salbeiblatter (German), salicylic acid, Salvia acetabulosa, Salvia argentea, Salvia bertolonii, Salvia fruticosa, Salvia hispanorum Lag., salvia honey, Salvia judaica Boiss., Salvia lavadulifolia, Salvia lavandulaefolia, Salvia lavandulaefolia Vahl., Salvia lavandulifolia, Salvia lavandulifolia Vahl., Salvia libanotica, Salvia mellifera, Salvia miltiorrhiza, Salvia multicaulis, Salvia officinalis, Salvia officinalis L. "Desislava", Salvia officinalis subsp. auriculata, Salvia officinalis var. purpurea, Salvia officinalis x Salvia fruticosa, Salvia pratensis, Salvia reflexa Hornem., Salvia repens, Salvia rhytidea Benth., Salvia runcinata, Salvia sclarea, Salvia somalensis Vatke, Salvia splendens, Salvia stenophylla, Salvia triloba, salviatannin, salvigenin, salvin, sawge, scarlet sage, selenium, sesamol, sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, shell flower sage, silver sage, Spanish sage, stigmasterol, tannins, tanshinone IIA, terpinen-4-ol, terpineol, terpinolene, thujenone, thujone, thymol, trans-p-coumaric acid 4-O-(2'-O-beta-D-apiofuranosyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside, tricolor, triterpenoids, true sage, ursolic acid, uvaol, vanillic acid, viridiflorol, water-soluble polysaccharide complex.
Note: This bottom line does not contain information on clary sage (Salvia sclarea), red or Chinese sage (danshen or Salvia miltiorrhiza), prairie sage (Artemisia ludoviciana), white sage (Salvia apiana), or Jerusalem sage (Phlomis fruticosa). This bottom line focuses on Salvia officinalis or Salvia lavandulaefolia (Salvia lavandulifolia).

evidence table

These uses have been tested in humans or animals. Safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider.
 
Alzheimer's disease (Grade: C)
Based on early human study,
Herpes (Grade: C)
Early study has shown that sage extracts may prevent the ability of the herpes virus to affect cells. In human study, a product containing sage leaf and other ingredients helped reduce side effects on the skin normally associated with herpes. Additional study is needed in this area.
High cholesterol (Grade: C)
L leaf extract improved blood levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL or "good cholesterol") in people with newly discovered high cholesterol. Further research is needed before conclusions can be made.
Lung cancer prevention (Grade: C)
Although there is a lack of human study, sage used daily as a spice in foods has been associated with a lower risk of lung cancer in the Mediterranean diet. Additional study is needed in this area.
Memory (Grade: C)
Sage is traditionally used to improve memory and cognition. Early human study suggests that sage (
Menopause (Grade: C)
Sage may contain compounds that act like the hormone estrogen. In theory, these compounds may decrease symptoms of menopause. Sage has been tested against menopausal symptoms with promising results. Additional study is needed in this area.
Mood enhancement (Grade: C)
Sage is traditionally used to improve mood. Early human study suggests that sage (
Pharyngitis (inflammation of the throat) (Grade: C)
Sage mouthwashes and gargles have been approved in Germany by the German Commission E for many years for use against sore throat. Good clinical evidence exists for the use of sage for pharyngitis.
Recovery after surgery (Grade: C)
Preliminary evidence in humans suggests that
Sore throat (Grade: C)
Sage mouthwashes and gargles have been approved in Germany by the German Commission E for many years for use against sore throat. Also, an echinacea/sage spray for three days may result in a decrease in sore throat symptoms. Additional study is needed in this area.
Sunburn prevention (Grade: C)
Based on early study, a sage extract, applied to the skin, may prevent ultraviolet light-induced skin swelling (erythema) in healthy subjects. Additional study is needed in this area.
Vaginal infections (bacterial vaginosis) (Grade: C)
Based on early study in humans, a sage extract may reduce vaginal pH levels and improve symptoms of vaginal infection. Additional study is needed in this area.