Guggul (Commifora mukul)

background

Guggul is the common name for the mukul myrrh tree, Commiphora mukul (also known as Commiphora wightii). Guggul also refers to the substance that the tree produces. Guggulipid, a compound that comes from guggul, contains guggulsterone E and guggulsterone Z, which are plant sterols (steroid compounds similar to cholesterol). Before 2003, most evidence suggested that guggulipid reduces total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL or "bad") cholesterol and triglycerides, and increases high-density lipoprotein (HDL or "good") cholesterol. However, results are conflicting. Recent studies report that guggul may benefit high cholesterol. More research is needed.
Guggul has also been studied for acne, weight loss, osteoarthritis, and rheumatoid arthritis. More research is needed in these areas.

Related Terms

3-(4-Hydroxy-3-methoxy-phenyl)-propanoic-acid-docosane-1-2-3-4-tetraol-1-yl-ester, 3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-phenyl)-propanoic-acid-eicosane-1-2-3-4-tetraol-1-yl-ester, 3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-phenyl)-propanoic-acid-heneicosane-1-2-3-4-tetraol-1-yl-ester, 3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-phenyl)-propanoic-acid-heptadecane-1-2-3-4-tetraol-1-yl-ester, 3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-phenyl)-propanoic-acid-hexadecane-1-2-3-4-tetraol-1-yl-ester, 3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-phenyl)-propanoic-acid-nonadecane-1-2-3-4-tetraol-1-yl-ester, 3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-phenyl)-propanoic-acid-octadecane-1-2-3-4-tetraol-1-yl-ester, 10-beta-hydroxy-pregn-4-en-one, 16-alpha-hydroxy-pregn-4-en-3-one, 20-alpha-hydroxy-pregn-4-en-3-one, 20(R)-hydroxy-pregn-4-en-3-one, 20(S)-hydroxy-pregn-4-en-3-one, allo-cembrol, allyl-cembrol, aluminum, amino acid, African myrrh, Arabian myrrh, Balsamodendrum mukul (Hook. ex Stocks), Balsamodendrum wightii Arn., bdellium (Greek, Hebrew, Latin), bdellium gum, bdellium tree, beta-sitosterol, Bhandari, Burseraceae (family), calcium, cembranoids, cembrenes (1-isopropyl-4,8,12-trimethyl-cyclotetradeca-2,4,7,11-tetraene), cembrene A (1-isopropenyl-4,8,12-trimethyl-cyclotetradeca-4,8,12-triene), cembrenol (1-isopropyl-4,8,12-trimethyl-cyclotetradeca-3,7,11-trienol), cholesterol, cis-guggulsterol, cis-guggulsterone, Commifora mukul, Commiphora erlangeriana, Commiphora mukul, Commiphora mukul (Hook. ex Stocks), Commiphora opobalsamum, Commiphora whightii, Commiphora wightii (Arn.), commiphora-mukul-keto-steroid, commiphora-mukul-steroid, commiphora-mukul-sterol, copper, E-guggulsterone, eicosane-1-2-3-4-tetrol, ellagic acid, false myrrh (as C. mukul), ferrulates, ferulic acid, flavanones, fraction A, guaijaverin, guggal, guggul (Hindi), guggul oleoresin, guggulipid, guggulipid C+, guggullignan-I, guggullignan-II, guggulsterol-III, guggulsterol-IV, guggulsterol-V, guggulsterol-VI, guggulsterone (4,17(20)-pregnadiene-3,16-dione), guggulu (Sanskrit), guglip, gugul, gugulimax, gugulipid, Gugulmax®, gum, gum guggul, gum guggulu, gum myrrh, hyperoside, Indian bdellium (as C. mukul), Indian bdellium tree (as C. mukul), Indian myrrh, iron, magnesium, minerals, mo ku er mo yao (as C. mukul) (Chinese), mo yao, mukulol (1-isopropyl-4,8,12-trimethyl- cyclotetradeca-3,7,11-trienol), myricyl-alcohol, myrrha, myrrhe des Indes (French), nonadecane-1-2-3-4-tetrol, octadecane-1-2-3-4-tetrol, oleogum resin, oleo gum resin, pelargonidin-3-5-di-O-glucoside, pelargonin, quercetin, quercetin-3-O-beta-D-glucurondine, quercetin-3-O-beta-D-glucuronide, quercitrin, (+)-sesamin, sesquiterpenoids, sterols, sterones, trans-guggulsterone, verticillol (4,8,12,15,15-pentamethyl-bicyclo[9.3.1]pentadeca-3,7-dien-12-ol), Vitamin World® Select Herbals Standardized Plex 340mg, Z-guggulsterone.
Select combination products: BHUx (Ayurvedic formula containing Commiphora mukul, Boswellia serrata, Termenalia arjuna, Semecarpus anacardium, and Strychnox nux vomica), Sunthi guggulu, sunthi-guggulu (combination with ginger).
Note: Mirazid® is made from an extract of Commiphora Extract Guggul molmol (myrrh) and manufactured by Pharco Pharmaceuticals. It is marketed for treating parasite infections. This bottom line focuses on Commiphora mukul, not Commiphora molmol; however, examples of current research using Mirazid® are included.

evidence table

These uses have been tested in humans or animals. Safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider.
 
High cholesterol (Grade: B)
Guggulipid supplements have been taken for high cholesterol, although, there is controversy on their effectiveness. Early, low-quality evidence suggests that guggulipid may reduce low-density lipoprotein
Acne (Grade: C)
Guggulipid has anti-inflammatory effects and has been suggested as a treatment for severe acne. Early research suggests possible short-term improvements in the number of acne lesions. However, further study is needed in this area.
Osteoarthritis (Grade: C)
Guggulsterone is a plant chemical that has traditionally been used to treat osteoarthritis. It may have anti-inflammatory effects. However, evidence is lacking to support the use of guggul for osteoarthritis. Further study is needed in this area.
Rheumatoid arthritis (Grade: C)
Evidence is lacking to support the use of guggul alone for the management of rheumatoid arthritis. Further study is needed.
Weight loss (Grade: C)
Guggul is included in various traditional Ayurvedic formulas used for weight loss. However, evidence is lacking to support guggul's use for this purpose. More research is needed.