Durian refers to the fruit of the trees of the genus Durio. There are at least 30 recognized Durio species and at least nine edible species. Durio zibethinus is the most common of the Durio species. Durio species are native to wet equatorial forests in Southeast Asia.
According to traditional use, durian may have antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, and vasoconstrictor properties. According to laboratory analysis, durian has antioxidant activity and may reduce cholesterol levels in animals.
Traditionally, durian leaves and roots are in Malaysia used to treat fever. The juice of fresh leaves is used as an ingredient in a lotion for fevers, and the juice from the bark is used as an antimalarial in Sumatra. The Javanese also believe that durian has aphrodisiac properties. In addition, durian leaves are considered anthelmintic and are used for jaundice treatment. Decoctions of the leaves and fruits are used to treat swelling and skin conditions.
Durian is commonly known as the "king of the fruits," a label that may be attributed to its formidable appearance and strong odor. Durian fruit is used to flavor a wide variety of sweet edibles, such as traditional Malay candy, "ice kachang," rose biscuits, cakes, and ice creams. There are also a variety of dishes served with durian, such as pulut durian (rice steamed with coconut milk and served with ripe durian) and tempoyak (fermented durian that may be eaten either raw or cooked with rice or used for making curry). Durian seeds may be eaten when they are boiled, roasted, or fried in coconut oil. Eating raw durian seeds is not advised, due to possible toxicity.
2,6-Dimethoxy-p-benzoquinone, 3-beta-O-trans-caffeoyl-2alpha-hydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid, 3-beta-O-trans-caffeoyl-2alpha-hydroxytaraxest-12-en-28-oic acid, ambetan, arjunolic acid, berserah mek (Malay), beta-carotene, boehmenan, Bombacaceae (family), Boschia grandiflora mast, caffeoylcylicodiscate, calcium oxalate, chaarian, chanee, chani, civet fruit, civet-cat fruit tree, common durian, cyclopropene fatty acids, D24, D99, D123, D145, D158, D159, D169, dihydrosterculic acid, doerian, du ri an, dulian, duren, durian hijau, durian kulu, durian maleh, durian sukang, Durianbaum (German), durião (Portuguese), durio, Durio acuminatissima, Durio dulcis Becc., Durio foetida Thunb., Durio grandiflorus (Mast.) Kosterm. & Soegeng, Durio graveolens Becc., Durio kutejensis (Hassk.) Becc., Durio lowianus King, Durio malaccensis Planch., Durio maragang, Durio merah, Durio oblongus, Durio oxleyanus Griff., Durio pinangianus, Durio testudinarium, Durio wyatt-smithii Kosterm., Durio wyattsmithii Kosterm., Durio zibethinus spp., durión (Spanish), du-yin, eucryphin, fatty acids, formic acid, fraxidin, gibbon, golden pillow, hydroxymellein, hydroxy-tryptamines, indole, kan yao, kadu, keratogan, kob, kradum, kradum thong, kura-kura, kutejensis hassk., lahai, Lahia kutejensis Hassk., lahong, lai, liu lian (Dutch), malvatic acid, maslinic acid, methyl protocatechuate, methyllasiodiplodin, minerals, mon thong, mon thong durian cultivar, munjit, mustard oils, phytate, polyphenols, pung manee, quercetin, red durian, saponins, sterculic acid, Stinkfrucht (German), stinkvrucht (Dutch), tabelak, tannins, tempoyak (fermented durian flesh), thourièn, threo-carolignan E, thu-réén, thu-rian, thurian, triterpenoids, tuan mek hijau, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin C, vitamin E, Zibetbaum (German).
These uses have been tested in humans or animals. Safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider.