3,3'-Diindolylmethane (DIM or I33') is produced by indole-3-carbinol (I3C). I3C may be found in many vegetables in the Brassica family, like broccoli, cabbage, or brussels sprouts. I3C forms DIM when it comes into contact with stomach acid.
DIM is commonly used as a dietary supplement and is believed to have anticancer activity. The anticancer effects of DIM have been observed in many cancer cell lines, particularly breast and prostate cancer lines. According to one study, DIM may not be clinically superior to I3C, but it may enhance the effects of I3C.
There is increasing evidence that shows a link between estrogen metabolism and cancer, as well as increasing evidence showing that estrogen metabolism may be changed through increasing supplements such as DIM and I3C in the diet. Dietary intervention may be a potential way to change estrogen metabolism for cancer prevention. Some studies, however, caution that I3C may promote estrogen metabolite formation or activate estrogen receptors, which may cause tumors. More research is needed before a strong conclusion may be made.

Related Terms

1,1-Bis[3'-(5-methoxyindolyl)]-1-(p-t-butylphenyl) methane, 1,1-bis(3'-indolyl)-1-(p-substituted phenyl)methane, 1,1-bis(3'-indolyl)-1-(p-t-butylphenyl)methane, 2-carboxy-5-nitrobenzne sulfonic acid, 3-(1H-indol-3-ylmethyl)-1H-indole, 3-(1H-indole-3-ylmethyl)-2-oxindole (2-ox-DIM), 3,3'-diindolylmethane, 3,3'-methanediylbis(1H-indole), 3,3'-methylene-bis-1H-indole, 3,3'-methylene-bisindole, 3,3'-methylenebisindole, 3,3'-methylenediindole, 3-diindolul methane, 3-[hydroxy-(1H-indol-3-yl)-methyl]-1,3-dihydro-2-oxindole (3-methylenehydroxy-2-ox-DIM), 3-hydroxy-3-(1H-indole-3-ylmethyl)-2-oxindole (3-hydroxy-2-ox-DIM), 3-indolylmethyl glucosinolate, arundine, B-DIM, BioResponse BR-DIM, BioResponse DIM®, bis(1H-indol-3-yl)methanol (3-methylenehydroxy-DIM), bis(3-indolyl)methane, Brassica spp., Brassicaceae, BR-DIM, C-DIMs, di-indoylmethane, diinolylmethane, DIM, DIM-C-pPhtBu, glucobrassicin, I33', I3C, indole dimer diindole methane, indole-3-carbinol, indoles, indolplex, indolyl-CH2-indolyl.

evidence table

These uses have been tested in humans or animals. Safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider.
Breast cancer (Grade: C)
Preliminary research on early-stage breast cancer shows that diindolylmethane may have an effect on estrogen metabolism, but it is unclear whether this translates to a reduced risk of cancer. Higher-quality evidence is needed before further conclusions can be made.
Cervical cancer (Grade: C)
Preliminary evidence shows that diindolylmethane may improve cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. More research is needed before a conclusion can be made.
Prostate cancer (Grade: C)
Preliminary research shows that diindolylmethane may improve prostate cancer without causing significant toxicity. However, more research is needed before a conclusion can be made.