Swertia chirata is a plant that grows at high elevations in Kashmir, Nepal, and Bhutan. It is an annual plant with yellow flowers that grows to 2-3 feet tall. Today, the plant is threatened with extinction because of poor seed germination and low viability, and efforts are being taken to preserve it.
Swertia chirata is known for its bitter taste and has been used in traditional medicine to treat liver disorders, malaria, diabetes, fever, and skin diseases. Swertia chirata is used in Ayurveda, a form of traditional medicine that originated in India, and is thought to help treat liver disorders and malarial fevers. Swertia chirata has also been used in other traditional medicine systems, such as Unani and Siddha.
At this time, there is a lack of data to support of the use of Swertia chirata for any condition. Further research is needed before conclusions can be made.
1,3,5,8-Tetrahydroxyxanthone, 1,5,8-trihydroxy-3-methoxy-xanthone-8-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, 1,5-dihydroxy-3-methoxyxanthone-8-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, 21-alpha-H-hop-22(29)-en-3-beta-ol, 24-ethylcholest-4-en-3-one, alkaloids, amarogentin, amaroswerin, beta-sitosterol-3beta-D-glucoside, bhuchiretta, bitter iridoid glycosides, bitter stick, carbonates, charayatah, chirat-16-en-3beta,24-diol, Chinese chirata, chiraita, chirata (Hindi), chiratenol, chiratin, chirayata, chirayta, chiretta, ciraaitaa (Nepalese), East Indian balmony, enicoflavine, esvertia de la India (Spanish), flavonoids, gammacer-16-en-3-beta-ol, gammacerane triterpenoid (kairatenol), Gentiana chirata, Gentiana chirayita, Gentianaceae (family), gentianine (gentisin), gentiocrucine, glycosides, gum, Indian bolonong, Indian gentian, irridoids, Jwaran-thakah, kairata, kiraita, kirata, kirata-tikta, kiratatikta (Sanskrit), kiratatiktaka (Sanskrit), kiriath, kiriyattu, Kiryat-charayatah Bhunimba, mahasudarshana churna, mahatita, mangiferin, nila-vembu, nila-vemu, nonacosanylhentriacontanoate, oleanolic acid, Ophelia chirata, ophelic acid, phosphates, pichierenol, Qasabuz-Zarirah, resins, secoiridoids, stigmasterol, swerchirin, sweroside, sweroside 2'-O-3'',3''',5''-trihydroxy-biphenyl-2''-carboxylic acid ester, swerta-7,9(11)-dien-3-beta-ol, swertanone, Swertia bimaculata, Swertia chirayita, swertiamarin, swertie de l'Inde (French), syringaresinol, terpenoids, tetraoxygenated xanthones (magniferin, 1,5,8-trihydroxy-3-methoxyxanthone, 1-hydroxy-3,5,8-trimethoxyxanthone, and 1-hydroxy-3,7,8-trimethoxyxanthone), triterpenes, triterpenoids, xanthonoids, yin du zhang ya cai.
Note: The information in this monograph is limited to Swertia chirata. Several species of Ophelia (O. angustifolia, O. elegans, O. densifolia, O. multiflora, and O. pulchella) and related plants go by the name of chirata in India. These are designated as bill (puharee) chirata, sweet (meetha) chirata, purple (ooda) chirata, and southern (dukhunee) chirata. Chota chiretta, or small chiretta, is the product of Slevogtia orientalis.
These uses have been tested in humans or animals. Safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider.