Beer is a popular alcoholic beverage produced by the fermentation of sugars derived from starch-based materials. Barley (malt), hops, water, and yeast are the major ingredients in beer.
Archeological and biblical studies show that beer has been a part of human culture for thousands of years.
According to secondary sources, the United States consumes less alcohol, including beer, than other countries in the world. European cultures vary by the types of alcohol consumed. Beer is the major contributor to alcohol consumption by men living in the Netherlands, Germany, Sweden, and Denmark. In Murcia, Spain, women drink more beer than wine. In general, culture, age, and sex are important determinants of the type of alcohol consumed.
At this time, there is a lack of strong scientific evidence to support beer consumption for any clinical purpose.

Related Terms

5-(or 2)-Ethyl-2-(or 5)-methyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone, 8-prenylnaringenin (8-PN), alcohol, alpha-acids, barley, benzoic acid derivatives, catechin, chalcone xanthohumol, cinnamic acid derivatives, coumarins, dimeric proanthocyanidins, epicatechin, ferulic acid, flavonoids, furanones, hops, hordenine, Hordeum vulgare, hydroquinone, iso-alpha-acids, isohumulones, isoxanthohumol, leucocyanidin, malt, mevalonic acid, monomeric polyphenols, monophenols, nisin, oligomeric proanthocyanidins, phenolic compounds, phytoestrogens, polyamines, polyphenols, prenylated chalcones, prenylflavonoids, procyanidin B3, prodelphinidin B3, purines, putrescine, quercetinspermidine, spermine, sulfites, sulphites, trimeric proanthocyanidins, tyrosine, tyrosol, vitamin B2, vitamin B6, xanthohumol, yeast.
Note: This monograph does not cover nonalcoholic or low-alcohol beer, barley, hops, or malt.

evidence table

These uses have been tested in humans or animals. Safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider.
Anti-inflammatory (Grade: C)
Studies suggest that moderate alcohol-consuming beer drinkers have lower levels of C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, plasma viscosity, and white blood cell counts than non-beer drinkers. Further research is required before conclusions can be made.
Antioxidant (Grade: C)
Further research on the effect of beer on antioxidants is required before conclusions can be made
Cardiovascular risk reduction (Grade: C)
Although moderate beer drinking is associated with improved cardiovascular risk reduction, further research on the mechanisms is required before conclusions can be made.