Avoid in individuals with a known allergy or hypersensitivity to fig or herbs in the Moraceae family. Some oral allergy syndromes have been attributed to the cross-sensitivity in people to grass and birch pollens. Food allergy to fig has also been reported due to cross sensitization to weeping fig (Ficus benjamina), or mulberry. Sensitization to fig with cross-sensitization to weeping fig and natural rubber latex has also been reported.
Allergic reactions to fresh or dried figs can present as a consequence of primary sensitization to airborne Ficus benjamina allergens independent of sensitization to rubber latex allergens. Kiwi fruit, papaya, and avocado as well as pineapple and banana may be other fruits associated with sensitization to Ficus allergens.
Side Effects and Warnings
There are few reports of adverse effects associated with fig. At least one report has indicated no adverse effects in subjects who were treated with an oral (by mouth) fig leaf decoction for one month. However, because fig leaf contains psoralens, it may cause photodermatitis when applied on the skin. Excessive sunlight or ultraviolet light exposure should be avoided while using products that contain fig leaf.
Many cases of occupational allergy to weeping fig in plant keepers have been reported and side effects may include conjunctivitis, rhinitis, anaphylactic shock or asthma.
Although rare, obstructive ileus (intestinal/bowel obstruction), hemolytic anemia (deficiency of red blood cells), and retinal hemorrhages (bleeding of the retina) have been reported. Use cautiously in patients with bleeding disorders.
Pregnancy & Breastfeeding
Fig, taken as a medicinal agent, is not recommended in pregnant or breastfeeding women due to a lack of available scientific evidence. However, fresh or dried fruit is likely safe when taken by mouth in amounts commonly found in foods.
Adults (over 18 years old)
There is no proven safe or effective dose for fig. However, as a tea decoction, 1 cup daily of 13 grams of Ficus carica leaf has been used.
Children (under 18 years old)
There is no proven safe or effective dose for fig in children, and use is not recommended.
Interactions with Drugs
Theoretically, because fig leaf contains furocoumarins, it may increase the risk of bleeding when taken with drugs that increase the risk of bleeding. Some examples include aspirin, anticoagulants ("blood thinners") such as warfarin (Coumadin®) or heparin, anti-platelet drugs such as clopidogrel (Plavix®), and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) such as ibuprofen (Motrin®, Advil®) or naproxen (Naprosyn®, Aleve®).
Theoretically, fig leaf may lower blood sugar levels. Caution is advised when using medications that may also lower blood sugar. Patients taking drugs for diabetes by mouth or insulin should be monitored closely by a qualified healthcare professional, including a pharmacist. Medication adjustments may be necessary.
Interactions with Herbs & Dietary Supplements
Theoretically, because fig leaf contains furocoumarins, it may increase the risk of bleeding when taken with herbs and supplements that are believed to increase the risk of bleeding. Multiple cases of bleeding have been reported with the use of Ginkgo biloba, and fewer cases with garlic and saw palmetto. Numerous other agents may theoretically increase the risk of bleeding, although this has not been proven in most cases.
Theoretically, fig leaf may lower blood sugar levels. Caution is advised when using herbs or supplements that may also lower blood sugar. Blood glucose levels may require monitoring, and doses may need adjustment.