Newborn immune system Prevention and Treatment

integrative therapies

Good scientific evidence :
Probiotics: Probiotics are beneficial bacteria that are sometimes called friendly germs. They help maintain a healthy intestine and help the body digest foods. They also help keep harmful bacteria and yeasts in the gut under control. Most probiotics come from food sources, especially cultured milk products. Research suggests that probiotics, especially those in milk or food, may be an effective agent for immune system enhancement. However, commercially produced yogurt may not be as effective. More studies are needed, particularly with yogurt, to give recommendations.
Probiotics are generally considered safe and well tolerated. Probiotics appear to be safe during pregnancy and breastfeeding. Avoid if allergic or hypersensitive to probiotics. Use cautiously if lactose intolerant.
Zinc: Zinc formulations have been used since ancient Egyptian times to enhance wound healing. Zinc appears to be an essential trace element for the immune system, but research on the effect of zinc supplementation on immune function is scant and mostly focuses on patients with specific diseases. Zinc gluconate appears to exert beneficial effects on immune cells, improving CD3 and CD4 counts and increasing CD4/CD8 ratios in children. There are relatively few studies that examine zinc levels and the effects of zinc supplementation on the health of the elderly population. Further research is needed before a recommendation can be made.
Zinc is generally considered safe when taken at the recommended dosages. Avoid zinc chloride because studies have not been done on its safety or effectiveness. Zinc is categorized as Pregnancy Category A. If this drug is used during pregnancy, the possibility of fetal harm appears remote. Because studies cannot rule out the possibility of harm, however, zinc acetate should only be used during pregnancy if clearly needed. Zinc appears to be safe in amounts that do not exceed the established tolerable upper intake level.
Unclear or conflicting scientific evidence :
Beta-carotene: Beta-carotene is a member of the carotenoids, which are very colorful (red, orange, yellow), fat-soluble compounds. They are naturally found in many fruits, grains, oil, and vegetables, including green plants, carrots, sweet potatoes, squash, spinach, apricots, and green peppers. Preliminary research of beta-carotene for immune system enhancement shows mixed results. Further research is needed before a conclusion can be drawn.
Avoid if sensitive to beta-carotene, vitamin A or any other ingredients in beta-carotene products.
Copper: Copper is a mineral that occurs naturally in many foods, including vegetables, legumes, nuts, grains, fruits, shellfish, avocado, beef, and animal organs, (e.g. liver and kidney). Copper is involved in the development of immune cells and immune function in the body. Severe copper deficiency appears to have adverse effects on immune function, although the exact mechanism is not clear.
The recommended dietary allowance (RDA) is 1,000 micrograms for pregnant women. It is unclear if copper supplementation is necessary during pregnancy to maintain adequate levels. Copper is potentially unsafe when used orally in higher doses. The RDA for breastfeeding women is 1,300 micrograms. Copper is potentially unsafe when used orally in higher doses. Copper is present in breast milk as a natural mineral and it is necessary for healthy babies.
Massage: The main goal of massage is to help the body heal itself. Touch is fundamental to massage therapy and is used by therapists to locate painful or tense areas, to determine how much pressure to apply, and to establish a therapeutic relationship with clients. Preliminary evidence suggests that massage therapy may preserve immune function. Further research is needed before a firm conclusion can be made.
Massage should not be used as a substitute for more proven therapies for medical conditions. Massage should not cause pain to the client.
Probiotics: Lactobacillus fermentum (CECT5716) may increase the protective effects of the flu vaccine. More research is needed regarding the use of probiotics as a vaccine adjunct.
Probiotics are generally considered safe and well tolerated. Probiotics appear to be safe during pregnancy and breastfeeding. Avoid if allergic or hypersensitive to probiotics. Use cautiously if lactose intolerant.
Reflexology: Reflexology involves the application of manual pressure to specific points or areas of the feet called "reflex points" that are believed to correspond to other parts of the body. Some research suggests that self-administered reflexology may be beneficial for immune enhancement. Additional study is needed in this area.
Reflexology should not delay diagnosis or treatment with more proven techniques or therapies.
Vitamin A: Vitamin A is a fat-soluble vitamin. Vitamin A deficiency may compromise immunity, but there is no clear evidence that additional vitamin A supplementation is beneficial for immune function in patients who are not vitamin A deficient.
Pregnant women should not take doses of vitamin A higher than the recommended dietary allowance because Vitamin A excess, as well as deficiency, has been associated with birth defects. Vitamin A is excreted in human breast milk. Benefits or dangers to nursing infants are not clearly established. Avoid if allergic or hypersensitive to vitamin A. Vitamin A toxicity can occur if taken at high dosages. Use cautiously with liver disease or alcoholism. Smokers who consume alcohol and beta-carotene may have an increased risk for lung cancer or heart disease.
Vitamin B6: Major sources of vitamin B6 include: cereal grains, legumes (beans), vegetables (like carrots, spinach, peas), potatoes, milk, cheese, eggs, fish, liver, meat, and flour. Vitamin B6 has been shown to be important for immune system function in older individuals. One study found that the amount of vitamin B6 required to reverse immune system impairments in elderly people was more than the current recommended dietary allowance (RDA). Well-designed clinical trials on vitamin B6 supplementation for this indication are needed before a conclusion can be made.
Vitamin B6 is likely safe when used orally in doses not exceeding the recommended dietary allowance (RDA). Avoid if sensitive or allergic to any vitamin B6 product ingredients. Some individuals seem to be particularly sensitive to vitamin B6 and may have problems at lower doses. Avoid excessive dosing. Use cautiously if pregnant or breastfeeding.
Vitamin D: Vitamin D is found in many foods, including fish, eggs, fortified milk, and cod liver oil. The sun also helps the body produce vitamin D. Preliminary human evidence suggests that vitamin D and its analogues, such as alfacalcidol, may act as immunomodulatory agents. High quality clinical studies are needed to better understand the effects of vitamin D on immunomodulation.
Avoid if allergic or hypersensitive to vitamin D or any of its components. Vitamin D is generally well-tolerated in recommended doses; doses higher than recommended may cause toxic effects. Vitamin D is safe in pregnant and breastfeeding women when taken in recommended doses.
Vitamin E: Vitamin E exists in eight different forms ("isomers"): alpha, beta, gamma and delta tocopherol; and alpha, beta, gamma, and delta tocotrienol. Alpha-tocopherol is the most active form in humans. Studies of the effects of vitamin E supplementation on immune system function have yielded mixed results. Further research is needed before a clear conclusion can be drawn.
Many prenatal vitamins contain small amounts of vitamin E. Natural forms of vitamin E may be preferable to man-made forms. The recommended daily allowance (RDA) of vitamin E for pregnant women of any age is 15 milligrams. The RDA for breastfeeding women of any age is 19 milligrams. Use beyond these levels in pregnant or breastfeeding women is not recommended. Avoid if allergic or hypersensitive to vitamin E. Avoid with Retinitis pigmentosa (loss of peripheral vision). Use cautiously with bleeding disorders.