General: Although Turner syndrome is not usually life threatening, patients generally require lifelong treatments to manage the symptoms and related illnesses. Most women with Turner syndrome are able to live long, healthy lives.
Patients with Turner syndrome should stay in close contact with a variety of medical specialists and are encouraged to undergo routine medical checkups and recommended screenings. Patients often need to undergo annual blood tests to check for signs of heart, kidney, or thyroid problems.
Behavioral therapy: Researchers are currently studying behavioral therapy as a possible treatment for specific learning difficulties in patients with Turner syndrome. Several different types of behavioral therapy are available to help patients improve their communication and social skills, as well as their learning abilities and adaptive behaviors. Evidence suggests that behavioral therapy is most effective if it is started early in life, when the patient is 3-4 years old or younger.
Recombinant human growth hormone (hGH): Many patients with Turner syndrome receive recombinant human growth hormone (hGH) therapy with somatropin to improve their height and assure full sexual development. Patients typically receive hGH injections several times a week. Some evidence suggests that hGH therapy increases the height of girls with Turner syndrome by an average of three inches during the first year of treatment.
Estrogen: Once girls with Turner syndrome reach puberty (about 12 years of age), they often require estrogen therapy. This therapy is generally continued for several years until the patient has reached full sexual maturity or until the normal age of menopause. Estrogen therapy has been shown to help patients grow, develop normal female sexual characteristics, begin menstruating, develop proper bone structure, and prevent osteoporosis.
Fertility treatments: In addition to hormonal therapies, some women may choose to undergo fertility treatments in order to have children. In vitro fertilization is one of the most common procedures used in Turner syndrome patients. During the procedure, mature eggs are taken from a woman and combined with a man's sperm in a laboratory. Once the eggs and sperm have combined to form embryos, they are implanted into the female's uterus. Because several embryos are implanted into the female's uterus, there is an increased chance of having more than one baby. This treatment also requires daily hormone injections and frequent blood tests. There are ethical issues regarding in vitro fertilization, particularly in relation to the moral status of gametes (unfertilized egg and sperm), of pre-implantation fertilized eggs, embryos, and of the unborn fetus.
Currently, there is a lack of scientific data on the use of integrative therapies for the treatment or prevention of Turner syndrome.
There is currently no known method of prevention for Turner syndrome. This disorder occurs randomly and is not inherited. Therefore, if a mother has the disorder, it does not necessarily mean that her daughters will as well.
If Turner syndrome is suspected during pregnancy, prenatal screening and diagnostic tests may be performed to determine if a mother's fetus has the disorder.
Patients with Turner syndrome should stay in close contact with a variety of medical specialists and are encouraged to undergo routine medical checkups and recommended screenings. Patients often need to undergo annual blood tests to check for signs of heart, kidney, and thyroid problems and other possible complications.