Rutin is a yellow crystalline flavonol glycoside (C27H30O16) that occurs in various plants (rue, tobacco, buckwheat, etc.). Upon hydrolysis (a chemical reaction that uses water to break down a compound), rutin yields quercetin and rutinose.
Rutin is used in many countries as a vasoprotectant and is an ingredient in numerous multivitamin preparations and herbal remedies. The rutosides are naturally occurring flavonoids that have documented effects on capillary permeability and edema (swelling) and have been used for the treatment of disorders of the venous and microcirculatory systems.
There is some evidence for the use of rutin for chronic venous insufficiency, edema, hemorrhoids, microangiopathy (disease of small blood vessels), varicosis and venous disorders. Well presented clinical trials are required in these fields before solid recommendations can be made.
Formulations, mainly consisting of the trihydroxyethyl derivative of rutin, are used in Europe, Mexico and other Latin American countries for the treatment of such venous disorders as varicose veins and hemorrhoids. The generic name for these formulations is troxerutin. Troxerutin has been widely used in Europe since the mid-1960s.
Alpha-glycosylrutin, ascorutin, benzopyrone, Birutan Forte, buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum), dihydroxyethylrutoside, eldrin, Ercevit fort, ergot compound, essaven, flavanoid, Fleboside, Globulariacitrin, Globularicitrin, glucopyranoside, HR, hydrolytic enzymes (HE), hydroxyethyl rutoside, hydroxyethylrutosiden, ilixanthin, melin, myrticalorin, myrticolorin, myticolorin, osyritrin, oxyritin, oxerutin, paliuroside, Paroven® (UK, S. Africa, Australasia), paveron 75, phlebolan-spray, phlebotropic drugs, phytomelin, Q1, quercetin, quercetin rutinoside, Relvene® (France), rexiluven (DRA 363, Sandoven), ritmilen, rutabion, rutin trihydrate, rutinic acid, rutinion acid, rutosid, rutoside, rutozyd, sandoven, sophorin, tanrutin, tetrahydroxyethyl-quercitin, tetrahydroxyethylrutoside, tri-(hyroxyethyl)-rutin, trihydroxyethylrutoside ("varemoid"), trioxyethylrutin, troxerutin (CAS 7085-55-4), trypsin, Venoruton® (most of Continental Europe), Venoruton 1000®, Venoruton Forte®, vicalin, violaquercitrin, vitamin P.
These uses have been tested in humans or animals. Safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider.
Chronic venous insufficiency
Overall, the results suggest a benefit for O-(beta-hydroxyethyl)-rutosides in chronic venous insufficiency. Additional study is needed to confirm these findings.
Overall, the results suggest a benefit for various rutin compounds in reducing edema and flight edema. Better-designed studies are needed to confirm these results.
Preliminary evidence suggests that o-(beta-hydroxyethyl) rutosides and trihydroxyethylrutosides may be safe and effective treatments for hemorrhoids. Studies investigating the effect of rutin in different populations, as well as efficacy on third or fourth degree hemorrhoids are warranted in future studies.
One clinical trial supported the use of O-(beta-hydroxyethyl)-rutosides for reduction of symptoms associated with Meniere's syndrome. Additional study is warranted in this area.
Overall, the results suggest a benefit for O-(beta-hydroxyethyl)-rutosides in microangiopathy (disease of the small blood vessels). Better-designed clinical trials in this field are required before a firm recommendation can be made.
Retinal vein occlusion
One well designed clinical trial has been conducted in the area of retinal vein occlusion. Further well designed studies are required in this field before a firm recommendation can be made.
Preliminary evidence does not suggest that tri-(hydroxyethyl)-rutin offer benefits to retinopathy patients. Well-designed studies in this field are required before a firm recommendation can be made.
One well designed study suggests that O-[beta-hydroxyethyl]-rutosides may offer benefit in terms of schizophrenia. More studies are required in this area before a strong recommendation can be made.
In one clinical trial, O-(beta-hydroxyethyl)-rutoside offered benefit in terms of skin irritation to individuals with breast cancer undergoing radiation treatment. Additional study is needed in this area.
Superficial vein thrombosis (SVT) is a common complication of varicose veins. One clinical trial suggests that Venoruton®, in combination with elastic compression or thrombectomy, offers benefit as compared to these treatments alone. Additional study is needed in this area.
Varicose leg ulcers
Rutin, in combination with compression, appears to have benefit over compression alone in the treatment of varicose leg ulcers. However, results are conflicting. Additional study is needed in this area.
Overall, the evidence suggests a benefit of troxerutin or O-(beta-hydroxyethyl) rutoside for varicosis. Well-designed clinical trials are required before a firm recommendation can be made.
Overall, the results suggest a benefit of hydroxyethylrutosides for venous hypertension (high blood pressure). Additional study is needed in this area.