Body composition measurements
Body mass index: Body mass index (BMI) is a widely accepted measurement that has been correlated with risk of developing disease. Adult BMI may also be related to child BMI and adiposity, but it is possible that the magnitude of this association dependson the relative fatness of children. It is unclear, however, whether certain disease precede increased BMI or vice versa. For instance, asthma development may be a point on the trajectory of chronic obesity disease or asthma may appear with obesity as a concurrent disorder.
Waist to hip ratio: Research has indicated that body shape may be related to an increased risk of certain diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and high cholesterol. An "apple-shape" (weight carried primarily around the waist) seems to have a higher risk of these diseases than a "pear-shape" (weight carried primarily around the hips.) These shapes can be defined by comparing waist circumference to hip circumference, or waist-hip ratio (WHR).