Clove is widely cultivated in Indonesia, Sri-Lanka, Madagascar, Tanzania, and Brazil. It is used in limited amounts in food products as a fragrant, flavoring agent, and antiseptic.
Clinical trials assessing monotherapy of clove are limited, although the expert panel German Commission E has approved the use of clove as a topical antiseptic and anesthetic. Other uses for clove, such as premature ejaculation, dry socket, and fever reduction, lack reliable human clinical evidence.
Clove is sometimes added to tobacco in cigarettes, and clove cigarettes ("kreteks") typically contain 60% tobacco and 40% ground cloves.
Eugenol, a constituent of clove, has been used for analgesic, local anesthetic, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial effects. It is used in the form of a paste or mixture as dental cement, filler, and restorative material.
Plant oils, including clove, may be used in livestock to inhibit microbial fermentation in waste products. Clove oil may be found in high concentration licorice (glycyrrhizin) products to prevent gel formation in an aqueous solution.
2-methoxy-4-(2-propenyl)-phenol, Caryophylli, Caryophylli atheroleum,Caryophylli Flos, Caryophyllus aromaticus, cengke, cengkeh, chiodo di garofano (Italian), choji, chor boghbojh, chor poghpch, cinnamon nails, clau, clavos, clou de girofle (French), clovas de comer, clove, clove bud, clove bud oil, clove cigarettes, clove essential oil, clove leaf, clove oil, craveiro da india, cravinho, cravo, cravo de olor, cuisoare, ding heung, ding xiang, dinh huong, dok chan, dried clove, Eugenia bud, Eugenia aromatica, Eugenia caryophyllata, Eugenia caryophyllus, faranfil, Flores caryophylli, gahn plu, garifallo, garifalo, garifano, garn ploo, Gewurznelken Nagelein (German), gozdzik, gozdzikow korzenny, graambu, ground clove, gvazdikelia, gvozdika, harilik nelgipuu, hrebicek, iltze kanela, jeonghyang, jeonghyong namu, jonghyang, kabsh qarunfil, kala, kalmpir, kan phou, kan phu, karafuu, karamfil, kariofilla, kariofilo, khan pluu, khlam puu, klabong pako, klincic, klinceky, klincki, krambu, kreteks, krinfud, kruidnagel, krustnaglinas, kryddernellike, kryddnejlikor, kullobu, kurobu, kvapnusis gvazdikmedis, labanga, labango, laung, lavang, lavanga, lavangalu, lavnagamu, lay hnyin, leoung, ley nyim bwint, mikhak, mikhaki, mixaki, moschokarfi, Myrtaceae (family), nageljnove zbice, nagri, negull, neilikka, nelk, nelke, nellik, nellike, nejlikor, oil of clove, oleum caryophylli, pentogen, qalampir, shriisanjnan, Syzigium aromaricum, Syzygium aromaticum (L) Merr. & Perry. (clove), szegfu, szegfuszeg, tropical myrtle, tsiporen.
Do not confuse clove with: baguacu, black plum, Eugenia cumini, Eugenia edulis, Eugenia jambolana, Eugenia umbelliflora, Jamun, java apple, java plum, SCE, Syzigium cordatum, Syzygium cumini, Syzygium samarangense, water apple, or wax apple.
These uses have been tested in humans or animals. Safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider.
Clove essential oil is commonly used as a dental pain reliever. Early studies have found that a homemade clove gel may be as effective as benzocaine 20% gel. Clove oil combined with zinc oxide paste may be effective for dry socket (inflammation after tooth extraction).
Animal studies suggest that clove can lower fever, but no reliable human studies are available.
In lab and field tests, undiluted clove oil repelled multiple species of mosquitoes for up to two hours. However, undiluted clove oil may also cause skin rash in sensitive people.
A small amount of human research reports that a combination cream with clove and other herbs may be helpful in the treatment of premature ejaculation. However, well-designed studies of the effectiveness of clove alone are needed before a conclusion can be drawn.